According The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. [5] By processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement"[6] and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function",[7] these varieties acquire the social prestige associated with commerce and government. [62] Modern Standard Italian's lexicon has been deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its standard pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Standard Italian differs significantly from the Tuscan dialect. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, and is employed by a population for public communication. Standard English / Non-standard English (Jenkins 2003, ch. apply to it? [45] Like most things, it simply takes a little preparation and practice. But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables. Which of a standard language. To that end, other languages have a massive influence on Standard American English. of the characteristics mentioned do you think is the most important? "[50], The standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades. In that standard, ⟨s⟩ represents the phoneme /s/ when it appears at the end of a syllable (whereas in Rio de Janeiro this represents /ʃ/) the rhotic consonant spelled ⟨r⟩ is pronounced [h] in the same situation (whereas in São Paulo this is usually an alveolar flap or trill). This can include information, emotion, imagination and other elements of thought such as humor. The language changes as long as it exists giving birth of different varieties. To what extent does your own language qualify for the A standard language is a variety of language that is used by governments, in the media, in schools and for international communication. The same will be true if you take 2679 words (11 pages) Essay. It was by the mid-fifteenth century that the Chancery Standard started to be used for all official purposes — with the notable exception of the Church (which continued to use Latin). Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula. [9] Typically, the standardization process includes efforts to stabilize the spelling of the prestige dialect, to codify usages and particular (denotative) meanings through formal grammars and dictionaries, and to encourage public acceptance of the codifications as intrinsically correct. - It is free from obsolete elements. [19][20] In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect and standard variety are neutral synonyms for the term standard language, usages which indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language". In 1885 the Storting (parliament) declared both forms official and equal. [56] Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers,[57] including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would historically have been found. [59][60] In particular, Italian became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Florentine authors like Dante Alighieri, as well as to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between the northern and the southern Italian dialects. This kind of form of languages are always artificially modified at least to some degree. So here are some of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful. [31][32] In practice, the language varieties identified as standard are neither uniform nor fully stabilized, especially in their spoken forms. Typical [29][27], A standard variety can be conceptualized in two ways: (i) as the sociolect of a given socio-economic stratum or (ii) as the normative codification of a dialect, an idealized abstraction. Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese. Formality of language Academic language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other writing. choose to adopt a standard (or even an entirely different) language A child can learn languages … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Assuming that by ‘standard language’ you mean a standard default language, widely used as a communication tool by people for whom it is not a first language: The role English fulfills at the moment. to impose a standard language, although linguistic issues can arouse Many of the features are retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations. Webster's Dictionary), some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written forms of the language. It was first published by the translators in Dáil Éireann in the 1950s. a local variety, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider In many countries difficulties [28] Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie Française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español. Although Macedonian functions as the standard language of the Republic of North Macedonia, nonetheless, for political and cultural reasons, Bulgarians treat Macedonian as a Bulgarian dialect. A5) Standard English: avoids non-standard grammar, slang + swear words associated with better education + middle class manners usually used in print taught in school Non-standard English: includes types of … Click The differences between the variants do not hinder mutual intelligibility and do not undermine the integrity of the system as a whole. It forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the transmission of knowledge. Once it has gained general approval, the standard lang… [40], Chinese consists of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible, usually classified into seven to ten major groups, including Mandarin, Wu, Yue, Hakka and Min. language area. even different grammatical structures. [58], Standard Italian is derived from the Tuscan dialect, specifically from its Florentine variety—the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy. [16][65] They all have the same dialect basis (Štokavian). [8], The standardization of a language is a continual process, because a language-in-use cannot be permanently standardized like the parts of a machine. Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. [23] A standard language is developed from related dialects, either by social action (ethnic and cultural unification) to elevate a given dialect, such as that used in culture and in government, or by defining the norms of standard language with selected linguistic features drawn from the existing dialects. A language is a complex system that allows people to communicate meaning. [10][11] In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties;[12][13][14] examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese;[15][16] whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom. Standard usage serves as the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard. The philologist Ivar Aasen (1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål ('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. 7.2.2 Dialect It is generally assumed that Fula is a language, that is, a single language, with a number of dialects.In this sense, a dialect is regarded as a geographical variety of a language, spoken in a certain area, and being different in some linguistic items from The development of different varieties in language is the result of the constant change of language. although it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England. List. [76], Language variety with substantially codified usage and often attributed to professional/public contexts, common language based on Mandarin varieties, "Foilseacháin Rialtais / Government Publications—Don tSeachtain dar críoch 25 Iúil 2012 / For the week ended 25 July 2012", "Language, Ideology and Politics in Croatia", "La langue croate, serbe, bosniaque et monténégrine", "Naučnoznanstvena-znanstvenonaučna istina", "Le serbo-croate (bosniaque, croate, monténégrin, serbe): de l'étude d'une langue à l'identité des langues", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_language&oldid=994466775, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:28. The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is an official form of language. Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo (Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål, in 1929 renamed Bokmål ('book tongue'). Standard language is the way to use language in official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches. [26] Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau). This is most obvious in food. [43] Different Norwegian dialects were spoken in rural districts and provincial cities, but people with higher education and upper-class urban people spoke ″Danish with a Norwegian pronunciation". Economic Standard American English Usage " Standard American English usage is linguistic good manners, sensitively and accurately matched to context—to listeners or readers, to situation, and to purpose. The original ‘Standard Japanese” was in large part the product of political considerations during the last half of the Meiji era (1868 -1912) under the Genbun itchi (the unification of the spoken and written language) movement, a movement dedicated to present a united face to the world so that Japan would be perceived as a civilized nation. The Latin language that Roman armies introduced to Gaul, Hispania, and Dacia was of a different grammar, syntax, and vocabulary than the Classical Latin spoken and written by the statesman Cicero. 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